An Enduring Alliance - Celebrating 70 Years of NATO
Episode 10: Invoking Article 5

Episode 10: Invoking Article 5

August 9, 2019

Episode 10. Invoking Article 5

Article 5 is the cornerstone of the Alliance. It means that an attack on one is an attack on all. This article has been invoked only once in the 70-year history of the Alliance: in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terror attacks on the United States. In this episode we discuss how NATO came to the aid of the US and why article 5 was invoked.

We speak with Lord George Robertson about his recollection of the hours and days following the 9/11 attacks and we discuss the significance of the decision to invoke Article 5.

SHAPE Website: https://bit.ly/2YSXeyY

HOST: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Lord George Robertson, Michael Ruehle

 

Sources:

NATO Declassified: 9/11 and beyond

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/declassified_137125.htm

NATO and the days after 9/11

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=num7UD4oAME&list=PLFE2C29A8E575D5EB

Statement by the North Atlantic Council, 11 September 2001

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_18863.htm?selectedLocale=en

NATO's Response to Terrorism, 6 December 2001

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_18848.htm?selectedLocale=en

Statement on combating terrorism: Adapting the Alliance's Defence Capabilities, 18 December 2001

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_18843.htm?selectedLocale=en

NATO Engages: Special Screening: "NATO HQ: Behind the Lines" with Jamie Shea courtesy of Atlantic Council

https://youtu.be/5NpmsguN7nU 

Episode 9: North Macedonia - A Success Story

Episode 9: North Macedonia - A Success Story

July 26, 2019

Episode 9. North Macedonia – A Success Story

The lessons NATO learned during their operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo led to an under-appreciated success story, North Macedonia. In this episode we discuss how the Alliance successfully enforced a military ceasefire in North Macedonia and led Operation Essential Harvest, which disarmed rebels and ensured the basis for an effective diplomatic and political dialogue. All this was accomplished without deadly force or destruction.

SHAPE Website: https://bit.ly/2LGFUeD 

HOST: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Mark Laity, Carmen Romero

 

Sources:

Joint Statement on the ceasefires in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 5 July 2001

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_18868.htm?selectedLocale=en

EU and NATO agree concerted approach for the Western Balkans, 29 July 2003

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_20312.htm?selectedLocale=en

Mark Laity, Preventing war in Macedonia. Pre-emptive Diplomacy for the 21stcentury. Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies, Whitehall Paper 68, 2007.

Episode 8: NATO Becomes Operational

Episode 8: NATO Becomes Operational

July 12, 2019

Episode 8. NATO Becomes Operational

In the 1990s, NATO became operational for the first time in its 40-year history. The operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and later in Kosovo were a transformative experience for the Alliance. These were out-of-area engagements with new political and operational challenges.

In this episode a former NATO spokesperson recalls the key events that marked NATO’s involvement in the Balkans.

 

SHAPE Website: https://bit.ly/2XDMcSo

HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Jamie Shea, Michael Ruehle, Carmen Romero

 

Sources:

Statement on the Situation in Former Yugoslavia, 30 May 1995

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_24754.htm?selectedLocale=en

Statement on Bosnia-Herzegovina, 5 December 1995

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_24719.htm?selectedLocale=en

Press Conference on Transfer of Authority to IFOR Opening Statement, 20 December 1995

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_24762.htm?selectedLocale=en 

Declaration by the North Atlantic Council on IFOR's role in the transition to peace, 29 April 1996

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_25070.htm?selectedLocale=en

Statement by the North Atlantic Council on the situation in Albania, 13 March 1997

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_25476.htm?selectedLocale=en

Special Declaration on Bosnia and Herzegovina, 8 July 1997

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_25459.htm?selectedLocale=en

Political and Military Objectives of NATO Action with regard to the crisis in Kosovo, 23 March 1999

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_27451.htm?selectedLocale=en

Episode 7: Tearing Down Walls

Episode 7: Tearing Down Walls

June 28, 2019

Episode 7. Tearing Down Walls

In the Western world, the Fall of the Berlin Wall symbolised ofthe end of the Cold War. It was soon followed by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the establishment of new democratic governments in Central and Eastern Europe.

These events raised the questions: Was there still a need for NATO? What was the Alliance’s future? 

In this episode we discuss the way NATO answered these questions.

Our guests recall the hectic events following the end of the Cold War.

 

SHAPE Website: https://bit.ly/31WRBCx

HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Jamie Shea, Michael Ruehle, Carmen Romero

 

Sources:

NATO Declassified: The Fall of the Wall

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/declassified_135845.htm

Opportunities outweigh risks, Speech by Secretary General Manfred Wörner: 6 August 1989

http://archives.nato.int/nato-secretary-general-worner-opportunities-outweigh-risks-for-first-time;isad

The Alliance: A Key Player in the future. Speech by Secretary General Manfred Wörner. 26 October 1989

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_23563.htm?selectedLocale=en

NATO and a new European Order. Speech by Secretary General, Manfred Wörner, 19 April 1990

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_23726.htm?selectedLocale=en

Message from Turnberry. 8 June 1990

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_23697.htm?selectedLocale=en

Declaration on a Transformed North Atlantic Alliance ("The London Declaration"), 6 July 1990

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_23693.htm?selectedLocale=en

A common Europe-Partners in Stability, Speech by Secretary General, Manfred Wörner to Members of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 16 July 1990

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_23719.htm

NATO's Core Security Functions in the New Europe, 7 June 1991

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_23861.htm?selectedLocale=en

Episode 6: Military Exercises

Episode 6: Military Exercises

June 14, 2019

Episode 6. Military Exercises in the Cold War and Beyond

 

NATO’s mission has changed over time, from a strong deterrent role during the Cold War to a more diverse mission-set in the post-Cold War era. This included peace keeping, human rights protection and disaster relief.

In this episode we discuss how military exercises changed over time by bringing together NATO planners and members of the various armed forces to discuss these changes.

SHAPE Website: https://bit.ly/2KkhwyG 

HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Colonel Adam Edmunds, Ilay Ferrier, Brigadier General Franz Pfrengle, Diego Ruiz Palmer.

 

Sources:

NATO Declassified: The Cold War

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/135945.htm

 

VIDEO: Exercise Indian Summer (22-26 September 1954)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDA-82ECqOI

 

Beatrice Heuser, Tormod Heier and Guillame Lasconjarias (eds), Military Exercises: Political Messaging and Strategic Impact, NDC Forum Paper 26, NATO Defence College, 2018.

Episode 5: Conventional Forces in the Cold War & Beyond

Episode 5: Conventional Forces in the Cold War & Beyond

May 31, 2019

Episode 5. Conventional Forces in the Cold War and Beyond

During the Cold War, conventional forces were the cornerstone of NATO’s defence posture. NATO kept extensive military forces at a high level of readiness to ensure they were able to respond promptly to a surprise attack.

 In today’s episode we will discuss what this meant in practice and what it meant to be stationed in a ‘high readiness function.’ Our guests explain, with vivid memories and unique personal experiences.

SHAPE Website: https://bit.ly/2WBAaHX

HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Colonel Adam Edmunds, Ilay Ferrier, Brigadier General Franz Pfrengle, Diego Ruiz Palmer

 

Sources:

NATO Declassified: The Cold War

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/135945.htm

 

Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence. Defence Expenditures of NATO Countries (1949-1971), 8 December 1971

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_65857.htm?selectedLocale=en

 

Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence. Defence Expenditures of NATO Countries (1970-1990), 6 December 1990.

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_23686.htm?selectedLocale=en

 

Alliance Defence for the Seventies, 4 December 1970

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_26792.htm?selectedLocale=en

 

Special Meeting of Foreign and Defence Ministers (The "Double-Track" Decision on Theatre Nuclear Forces), 12 December 1979

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_27040.htm?selectedLocale=en

Episode 4: Time to Move

Episode 4: Time to Move

May 17, 2019

Episode 4. Time to Move

Few know that NATO was originally based in London, then moved to a lovely series of buildings which faced the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. SHAPE, its military headquarters was based nearby in Rocquencourt. However, NATO relocated abruptly to Belgium in the 1960s. 

In this episode we discuss this hectic time in NATO and SHAPE’s history including the reasons for leaving France, the French withdrawal from the integrated command structure and the rapid move of both Headquarters to Belgium.

Not many people know that, when the Alliance was founded, it was originally based in London. It later moved to Paris, into some very impressive headquarters which faced the Eiffel Tower. SHAPE, its military headquarters, was based in Rocquencourt, just outside Paris. In the late 1960s, NATO abruptly relocated to Belgium during a hectic time, marked by crises and changes in strategy.

In this episode we discuss France’s withdrawal from the integrated command structure and the reactions that this decision triggered. This included the move of NATO Headquarters to Brussels and SHAPE to Mons, the role of SACEUR General Lyman L. Lemnitzer in ensuring that NATO’s strategy and defence plans continued to keep Europe safe, and the Harmel Report, a key document that still guides NATO’s strategy today.

 

SHAPE Website: https://shape.nato.int/history/information/podcasts/episodes/time-to-move

HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Professor Pierre Buillon, Professor Maurice Vaïsse

 

 Sources:

NATO Declassified: France and NATO

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/declassified_160672.htm?selectedLocale=en 

 

VIDEO: 50th anniversary of NATO in Belgium (2017)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSHpxvEWkgI

 

Final Communiqué, 7-8 June 1966

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_26659.htm?selectedLocale=en

 

The Future Tasks of the Alliance. 'The Harmel Report'. 14 December 1967

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_26700.htm?selectedLocale=en

Episode 3: Raising a Wall in Berlin

Episode 3: Raising a Wall in Berlin

May 2, 2019

Episode 3. Raising a Wall in Berlin

During the Cold War, tensions over the status of West Berlin never stopped to worry western leaders. Between 1958 and 1961, tensions increased and it seemed that Europe would soon be dragged into another war. The United States, the United Kingdom and France began work on secret contingency plans for the defence of West Berlin, codenamed LIVE OAK. 

In this episode, we discuss how General Norstad prepared for the defence of West Berlin, how the crisis in Berlin put into question NATO’s nuclear posture and a new, ‘flexible’ nuclear response. 

SHAPE Website: https://shape.nato.int/history/raising-a-wall-in-berlin 

HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Colonel Adam Edmunds, Diego Ruiz Palmer, Dr. Gregory Pedlow

 Sources:

NATO Declassified: The Cold War

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/declassified_139429.htm 

NATO Archives Online: Military Planning for Berlin Emergency (1961-1968)

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/70925.htm

VIDEO: Background to Berlin (1962)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e3DWwQkv8HM

Three-Power Declaration on Germany, 11 May 1965

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_26646.htm?selectedLocale=en

Declaration on Germany, 15 December 1966 

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_26667.htm?selectedLocale=en

Gregory W. Pedlow, NATO Strategic concepts, 1949-1969

https://www.nato.int/archives/strategy.htm

Episode 2 - To Lead a Military, You Need Headquarters’

Episode 2 - To Lead a Military, You Need Headquarters’

April 16, 2019

Episode 2. To Lead a Military, You Need a Headquarters

The Washington Treaty had created the first military and political alliance that bridged across the Atlantic and brought together Western Europe and North America. To be able to protect its members, NATO needed a military headquarters, and fast. Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, SHAPE, was established in the early 1950s. SHAPE was the first and only allied military headquarters to be established in peacetime. In this episode, we will discuss the first command and control structure, key strategic ideas like massive nuclear retaliation and the role of General Dwight D. Eisenhower – the first Supreme Allied Commander Europe – in laying the foundation of SHAPE.

HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: Dr. Gregory Pedlow, Jamie Shea

Sources:

NATO Declassified: Origins

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/declassified_135843.htm

VIDEO: NATO: The Origins of SHAPE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCycBhpb_fE&index=14&list=PLk7aKtX-LpW6l8Q4Oqa6XHofFUw2o0xvy&t=0s

 VIDEO: An integrated force

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4PUXPEv8sVA

 Agreement between the Parties to the North Atlantic Treaty regarding the Status of their Forces, 19 June 1951.

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_17265.htm?selectedLocale=en

 Final Communiqué of the Ninth Session of the North Atlantic Council ("The Lisbon Decisions"), 25 February 1952.

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_17303.htm?selectedLocale=en

 

Protocol on the Status of International Military Headquarters set up pursuant to the North Atlantic Treaty, 28 August 1952.

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_17300.htm?selectedLocale=en

 Protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty on the Accession of the Federal Republic of Germany, 23 October 1954.

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_17411.htm?selectedLocale=en

 Eisenhower, Dwight D. The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower.Volume XII and XIII. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Episode 1 - Birth of an Alliance

Episode 1 - Birth of an Alliance

April 3, 2019

After the Second World War, Europe laid in ruins after years of war and bombing. The European Continent was devastated economically and politically. Tensions between the Western Allies and Soviet Russia had emerged in the last years of the war and soon led to the fear that the Soviet Army may attack Western Europe. 

In April 1949, twelve nations came together to sign the Washington Treaty and to pledge their commitment to work together to keep their nations safe. This episode looks at the origins of NATO, from the end of World War II, to the signing of the Treaty. It explains the key articles and how they lay the foundation for NATO’s missions and values over the past seven decades.

HOSTS: Dr. Stella Adorf, Master Sergeant Alex Burnett, Dr. Linda Risso

GUESTS: General Curtis Michael Scaparrotti

Sources:

NATO Declassified: Origins.

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/declassified_135843.htm

 The North Atlantic Treaty. Washington D.C. - 4 April 1949

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm

 Ismay, Hastings Lionel. NATO, The First Five Years: 1949-1954. Paris: NATO, 1954.

https://www.nato.int/archives/1st5years/index.htm